Li-Cycle’s core business model is to build, own, and operate lithium-ion battery recycling plants tailored to regional needs. Through the integrated development of Li-Cycle Technology™, it has been identified that the best and fit-for-market commercialization strategy is one of decentralization – i.e. with tailored size reduction plants (‘Spokes’) that are close to the highest volume points of consolidation of lithium-ion batteries, and centralized hydrometallurgical plants (‘Hubs’) that are decoupled from the size reduction facilities. The core benefit of this hub-and-spoke approach is the generation of a non-hazardous product close to the point of consolidation/ generation, minimizing transportation liability and cost to the greatest extent. This decentralized strategy is reflected in the commercial rollout plan for Li-Cycle’s first commercial plant, with a planned resource recovery capacity of 5,000 tonnes of spent lithium-ion batteries/year.